It’s a preventable infection that can be fatal if left untreated. Prevent infection by taking prescription antimalarial drugs and protecting yourself against mosquito bites (see below). Most travelers to malaria risk areas in this region should take mefloquine to prevent malaria. You can be infected with malaria in all areas of this region except the cities of Addis Ababa, Ismara, and Nairobi, the islands of Reunion and Seychelles, and in highland areas above 2,500 meters.
Dengue, filariasis, leishmaniasis, onchocerciasis, trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), and Rift Valley fever are carried by insects that occur in this region but are very rare. Protecting yourself against insect bites will help to prevent these diseases. These are not fatal however and rarely occur.
Because motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury among travelers, walk and drive defensively. Avoid night time travel if possible and always use seat belts.
CDC Recommends the Following Vaccines (as Appropriate for Age): See your doctor at least 4-6 weeks before your trip to allow time for shots to take effect.
IA certificate of yellow fever vaccine may be required for entry into certain of these countries.
Hepatitis B, if you might be exposed to blood (for example, health-care workers), have sexual contact with an infected person.
As needed, booster doses for tetanus-diphtheria, measles, and a one-time dose of polio vaccine for adults. Hepatitis B vaccine is now recommended for all infants and for children ages 11-12 years who did not receive the series as infants.